Ordinances - R5 N
|TO:||Honorable Mayor and Members of the City Commission|| |
|FROM:||Jimmy L. Morales, City Manager|| |
|DATE:||June 5, 2019|
5:03 p.m. First Reading Public Hearing
ACCESSORY DWELLING UNITS (ADU) - LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS
AN ORDINANCE OF THE MAYOR AND CITY COMMISSION OF THE CITY OF MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, AMENDING THE CODE OF THE CITY OF MIAMI BEACH, SUBPART B, ENTITLED “LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS,” BY AMENDING CHAPTER 114 OF THE CITY CODE, ENTITLED “GENERAL PROVISIONS,” SECTION 114-1, ENTITLED “DEFINITIONS,” TO ESTABLISH A DEFINITION FOR “ACCESSORY DWELLING UNIT” AND REMOVE THE DEFINITION OF “GUEST/SERVANTS QUARTERS”; AMENDING CHAPTER 142, ENTITLED “ZONING DISTRICTS AND REGULATIONS,” ARTICLE IV, ENTITLED “SUPPLEMENTARY DISTRICT REGULATIONS,” DIVISION 2, ENTITLED “ACCESSORY USES,” SECTION 142-905, ENTITLED “PERMITTED ACCESSORY USES IN SINGLE-FAMILY DISTRICTS,” TO REPLACE GUEST/SERVANTS QUARTERS WITH ACCESSORY DWELLING UNIT AS AN ALLOWABLE ACCESSORY USE FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DISTRICTS, AND PROVIDE STANDARDS FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND LEASING; AND AMENDING CHAPTER 142, ENTITLED “ZONING DISTRICTS AND REGULATIONS,” ARTICLE IV, ENTITLED “SUPPLEMENTARY DISTRICT REGULATIONS,” DIVISION 4, ENTITLED “SUPPLEMENTARY YARD REGULATIONS,” SECTION 142-1132, ENTITLED “ALLOWABLE ENCROACHMENTS WITHIN REQUIRED YARDS,” TO ALLOW FOR ACCESSORY DWELLING UNITS AS AN ALLOWABLE USE IN ACCESSORY BUILDINGS AND MODIFY THE MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHT FOR ACCESSORY BUILDINGS; AND PROVIDING FOR CODIFICATION, REPEALER, SEVERABILITY, AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE.
|The administration recommends that the City Commission approve the subject ordinance at first reading, and set a second reading/public hearing for July 17, 2019.|
On November 14, 2018, at the request of Commissioner Ricky Arriola, the City Commission referred a discussion item pertaining to accessory dwelling units (ADU’s) in single family districts to the Land Use and Development Committee (Item C4 O). On February 20, 2019, the Land Use and Development Committee (LUDC) discussed the proposal and recommended that the administration draft an ordinance. The LUDC continued the item to the April 3, 2019 meeting.
On April 3, 2019, the LUDC discussed the proposed ordinances and recommended that the City Commission refer the ordinances to the planning board. On April 10, 2019 the City Commission referred the subject ordinances to the Planning Board (Item C4 AC).
Accessory Dwelling Units (ADU’s) are small living units that have their own kitchen and bathroom facilities and are on the same property as a single-family home. They are often rented out to provide a family with extra income or made available to a relative looking for additional privacy. Such units can either be attached or detached from the home. They may also be known as granny flats, cottage houses, or secondary dwelling units. It was popular to include such units as part of single-family homes in the early 20th century, including within Miami Beach. However, such units fell into disfavor after World War II when development patterns shifted to a more suburban style, and many cities began to prohibit them.
With rising housing costs in urban areas, many cities are reintroducing the ability to build ADU’s in single family areas. This is intended to provide housing that is more attainable to the workforce and to provide homeowners an extra source of income which can help them maintain their homes. Some of the cities that currently allow ADU’s include: Austin, TX; Boulder, CO; Miami, FL (certain neighborhoods – ex. Buena Vista); Minneapolis, MN; Portland, OR; and Seattle, WA. In addition, all cities in California are required to allow for the construction of ADU’s.
City of Miami Beach
Section 142-905 of the Miami Beach Land Development Regulations (LDR’s) permits “Guest/servants quarters” as an accessory use in Single Family Districts. “Guest/servants quarters” are defined as:
living quarters within a detached or semi-detached accessory building located on the same lot with the main building for use by temporary guests or servants of the occupants of the premises. Such quarters shall not have separate utility meters, shall not be rented or otherwise used as a separate dwelling or have cooking facilities except as set forth in section 142-905.
A separate cooking facility is only allowed when the residence contains at least 3,600 square feet of floor area.
Many single-family homes in Miami Beach already contain guest/servant quarters, which are similar in scale and location to ADU’s. The difference between the two is that guest/servant quarters cannot be rented out, and as such they do not provide income for homeowners, nor housing that more attainable to the City’s workforce.
Currently, the City’s Comprehensive Plan includes several incentives to develop workforce and affordable housing in multifamily areas, such as increased density, reduced unit sizes, and parking reductions. Allowing ADU’s would be consistent and follow the same path as the previously approved incentives.
The Florida Legislature has recognized the benefits of ADUs at assisting to provide housing for low to moderate income persons within Florida Statute 163.31771. That statute provides that “Upon a finding by a local government that there is a shortage of affordable rentals within its jurisdiction, the local government may adopt an ordinance to allow accessory dwelling units in any area zoned for single-family residential use.” This provides that such units not count as an additional unit for the purposes of establishing density limits and levels of service.
Additionally, the statute requires that an application for a building permit to construct an accessory dwelling unit must include an affidavit from the applicant which attests that the unit will be rented at an affordable rate to an extremely-low-income, very-low-income, low-income, or moderate-income person or persons.” For reference, the definition of “Moderate-income persons” per the statute is “one or more natural persons or a family, the total annual adjusted gross household income of which is less than 120 percent of the median annual adjusted gross income for households within the state, or 120 percent of the median annual adjusted gross income for households within the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or, if not within an MSA, within the county in which the person or family resides, whichever is greater.” According to data published by the Florida Housing Finance Corporation for 2018, the monthly rent for a loft-style unit could reach approximately $1,653 or for a one-bedroom unit, approximately $1,771.
California Government Code
The State of California has gone further than the State of Florida in this regard and mandated that all local governments in the State allow ADUs to be built in all zoning districts that allow single-family uses. It provides for administrative approval of such units and allows local governments to establish setbacks, lot coverage, minimum and maximum unit sizes, and other requirements. However, it provides that parking requirements not exceed one space per unit or one bedroom, whichever is less, and no parking if the unit is within one-half mile of public transit, or in an historic district. It also allows for such units to be detached from the primary home or converted from an existing garage. Additionally, the code allows a city the option of requiring owner occupancy of either the primary home or the accessory dwelling unit.
City of Miami Zoning Ordinance (Miami 21 Code)
The City of Miami underwent a process of creating and adopting a new zoning code, known as the Miami 21 Code, between 2005 and 2009. As part of the process, homeowners’ associations in the City were consulted to determine if they had an interest in allowing ADU’s. Several responded that they did want them, and those neighborhoods received a single-family zoning designation that also allowed for ADU’s.
The T3-L (Sub-Urban Transect – Limited) district is the single-family district that allows for ADU’s. The code provides that the ADU be a maximum size of 450 square feet, only be ancillary to single-family residences, must be architecturally harmonious with the primary home, that a minimum of one parking space be provided, and that any façade abutting another property only utilize clerestory windows along that façade to ensure that a neighbor’s privacy is not impacted. Additionally, the Code requires that the principal dwelling be owner occupied in order to be able to allow for rental of the ADU.
The Affordable Housing Advisory Committee recently passed a motion supporting the legalization of accessory dwelling units within the City to encourage workforce/affordable housing. Several cities are allowing ADUs in order to allow more housing options in light of increasing housing costs. Staff believes that ADU’s would be a worthwhile and practical tool for addressing workforce and affordable housing in the City.
On February 20, 2019, the LUDC discussed the proposal and recommended that the administration draft an ordinance, which provided for the following, all of which are included in the attached amendment to the LDR’s:
1. That ADU’s be allowed in all single-family neighborhoods.
2. That the rental of ADU’s be limited to homesteaded or owner-occupied properties.
3. That the rental of ADU’s for over six months and one day.
The proposed ordinance allows for accessory dwelling units to be attached or detached from the primary home, provided it does not affect the single-family appearance of the residence. Additionally, it provides additional size limitations for ADU’s that are consistent with the existing requirements for accessory buildings, with a minimum size requirement of 200 square feet. Staff believes that the 200 square foot minimum proposed will be sufficient as the actual size of the unit can be a percentage of the main home. This is the current regulation for accessory structures and it makes sense as the main home needs to be a minimum size to have a functional ADU.
Because such structures will be habitable, the amendment provides that the height of accessory buildings be measured from the base flood elevation (BFE) plus a freeboard of one (1) foot, to ensure that they are resilient to sea level rise and that they can comply with life-safety requirements of the Florida Building Code and the City Code.
There is also a provision in the proposed ordinance that would allow for the grandfathering of existing accessory structures, built prior to January 1, 2019, provided the ADU is not expanded in size. All applicable development regulations, including lot size and setbacks, are addressed within the accessory structure’s development regulations.
A companion Comprehensive Plan amendment, which authorizes ADU’s as an accessory use in the “Single Family Residential Category” within the Land Use Element, is scheduled to be heard at this Commission meeting.
Finally, when the City Commission referred the ordinances on April 10, 2019, direction was given to explore the feasibility of accommodating rental periods of less than six months for ADU’s. The City Attorney is currently researching this and will advise the board of the findings at the time of the hearing.
PLANNING BOARD REVIEW
On May 21, 2019, the Planning Board held a public hearing and transmitted the ordinance to the City Commission with a favorable recommendation by a vote of 7-0.
|The administration recommends that the City Commission approve the subject ordinance at first reading and set a second reading/public hearing for July 17, 2019.|
Commissioner Ricky Arriola